Metacognitive Skills of Elementary School Learners in Relation to their Ethnicity and Metacognitive Awareness
Keywords:Metacognition, metacognitive skills, metacognitive awareness, ethnicity, problem solving
Metacognitive skills are the techniques or the executive functions for modifying cognitive processes before, during, or after any cognitive action. During learning process cognitive activity and communication can be employed consciously or unconsciously. Executive functions include things like verbal mediation, self-regulation, planning, judgments, and self-monitoring. These skills demonstrate a significant increase throughout late childhood and adolescence, even into adulthood. The executive functions are theoretically much connected to metacognitive awareness of learners about their own cognitive functioning. As knowledge and skills are the major constituents of cognitive functioning, this study perceives metacognitive awareness as the awareness on own knowledge construction process, information processing skills along with individual preferences of learning approaches. The objectives of the study were to examine the differences in metacognitive skills and metacognitive awareness of tribal and non-tribal learners in science at elementary level and to explore the relationship between metacognitive skills and metacognitive awareness of learners in science at elementary level. For the present study, 30 class VIII students were selected purposively from a semi-urban setup of Baripada block of Mayurbhanj district, Odisha. Metacognition skill and metacognition awareness assessment test were used for collection of data for the study. It was found that, among the four components of the meta-cognitive skills, the performance of learners in prediction and monitoring components were at a considerable higher level followed by planning skill was moderately high and the performance of learners in evaluation skill was at a very low level. However, there is no distinct trend in tribal non-tribal difference either in meta-cognitive skill or in meta-cognitive awareness. The components of metacognitive skills and meta-cognitive awareness are functionally interconnected and hence in ideal conditions the interrelationships among the components of metacognition would be of significantly very high order, which was observed in the present study. The correlation between metacognitive skills and metacognitive awareness among the non-tribal learners was stronger than that of tribal learners. The study recommends that metacognitive instructions should be integrated with the learning task over a prolonged period of time in order to be a successful performer in the task there by development of problem solving skills and scientific attitudes among the learners' and hence, improve the academic achievements to a considerable extent.